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   Short Nigel GM - ELO 2680  (1 Giugno 1965) ENG 
Short Nigel

Grande Maestro inglese. Impara gli scacchi a 5 anni dal padre e dal fratello maggiore. Si appassiona seguendo l'incontro Fischer-Spasskij a Reykjavik nel 1972. Sale alla ribalta a soli 10 anni battendo Viktor Kortchnoi in un'esibizione in simultanea. A dodici anni diviene in assoluto il più giovane partecipante al campionato di scacchi britannico. A quattordici arriva primo ex-aequo con Nunn e Bellin conquistando la prima norma di Maestro Internazionale. A 15 anni (1980) diventa il secondo più giovane Maestro Internazionale al mondo dopo il brasiliano Henrique Mecking. Al Campionato del mondo giovanile di Dortmund (l980) è secondo dietro a Garry Kasparov. A 19 anni (1984) diventa il più giovane Grande Maestro fino ad allora. Nel 1993 agli interzonali di Manila arriva terzo alla pari con Anand e dietro a Ivanchuk e Gelfand. Supera Gelfand negli ottavi e Speelman nei quarti. In semifinale batte Karpov in uno scontro che fu definito "la fine di un'era". Nella finale supera l'olandese Timman e conquista il diritto di sfidare il campione in carica Garry Kasparov. L'incontro per il titolo ebbe luogo a Londra nel settembre-ottobre 1993 e fu vinto da Kasparov (+6 −1= 14). Nel 1995 fu battuto nelle semifinali del torneo dei candidati di Linares da Gata Kamsky. Tra i vari tornei vinti si annoverano: Genova (1979), Amsterdam (1982,1988,1991,1992,1993), Baku (1983), Esbjerg (1984), Wijk Aan Zee (1986, 1987), Reykjavik (1987), Hastings (1987/88 e 1988/89), Parnu e Groningen (1996), Tallinn (1998), Dacca, Shyment e Pamplona (1999), Pechino (2000), Malmoe (2002 e 2009), Gibilterra (2003,2004), Budapest e Skanderborg (2003), Tai Yuan (2004), Bazna (2008) Campione britannico nel 1984, 1987 e 1988. Campione inglese nel 1991. Campione del Commonwealth a Bombay nel 2004 e nel 2006 e nel 2008 a Nagpur. Campione dell'Unione Europea nel 2006 a Liverpool. Ha inoltre sempre fatto parte della squadra inglese nelle Olimpiadi degli scacchi dal 1984 alle recenti conclusesi a Khanty Mansiysk (medaglia d'oro come 3a scacchiera nel 1986 a Dubai) e nel Campionato del mondo a squadre. 58° nella graduatoria mondiale (secondo nella classifica inglese dietro ad Adams) con i suoi 2680 punti Elo. Prima partecipazione al Torneo di Capodanno.

English Grand Master, born in 1965. He learned chess at the age of 5 from his father and his elder brother, but he got passionate about chess following the 1972 Spasskij-Fischer match in Reykjavik. Short came to the fore when, as a 10-years-old, he defeated GM Viktor Kortchnoi in a simultaneous exhibition. In 1977, by qualifying few days before his twelfth birthday, he became the youngest participant ever in the British Chess Championship. Two years later, in the 1979 British championship, in Chester, he tied for first place with GM John Nunn and IM Robert Bellin, earning his first IM norm. Few months later, at the 1979/80 “Hastings Premier” tournament, he became the youngest (at the time) International Master. At the 1980 World Junior Championship in Dortmund he placed second to Garry Kasparov. In 1984, aged 19, he became the youngest Grand Master of that time. In the 1993 Interzonal Tournament in Manila he was equal third with GM Anand, behind GMs Ivanchuk and Gelfand, thus qualifying (for the third time in a row, after the unfortunate qualifications of 1985 and 1989) to the Candidate Tournament. In the Candidate Tournament he overcame GM Gelfand in the eight-finals and GM Speelman in the quarter-finals, then in the semi-finals he defeated GM Karpov, a match that was defined “the end of an era”. In the final he defeated Dutchman GM Timman and earned the right to challenge the defending World Champion, GM Garry Kasparov. During the preparations for the world match the two players came to a collision with the FIDE and decided to found an alternative body, the Professional Chess Association (PCA). The match for the title of World Champion, held under the emblems of PCA, took place in London in September-October 1993, and Kasparov won convincingly (+6 −1 =13). In 1995 semi-finals of the PCA Candidate Tournament, in Linares, Short lost to GM Gata Kamsky. Among his countless wins let's recall: Geneva (1979), BBC Master Game (1981), Amsterdam (1982, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1993), Baku (1983), Esbjerg (1984), Wijk aan Zee (1986, 1987), Reykjavik (1987), Hastings (1987/88 and 1988/89), Pärnu and Groningen (1996), Tallinn (1998), Dhaka and Shyment (1999), Pamplona (1999/2000), Beijing (2000), Malmö (2002 and 2009), Gibraltar (2003, 2004), Budapest, “Samba Cup” and Skanderborg (2003), Taiyuan (2004), Politiken Cup (2006), Bazna (2008) and the “Staunton Memorial” (2009). He was the British champion in 1984, 1987 and 1988, and was the English champion in 1991. He was also the Commonwealth Champion in 2004 and 2006 in Mumbay and in 2008 in Nagpurq. He won the 2006 European Union Individual Open Chess Championship in Liverpool, and took a share of second place in the 2008 edition, again in Liverpool. Also, he has been a centrepiece of the England national team at the Chess Olympiads from Thessaloniki 1984 (in Dubai 1986 he received the gold medal on third board) to the recent 2010 Khanty-Mansiysk, as well as at World Team Championships. Short is currently 58th in the FIDE Ranking List (second in England to GM Adams) with 2680 Elo points. He is at his first participation to the Torneo di Capodanno.

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